Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon and a space buy viagra jelly without a prescription erectile dysfunction doctors fort lauderdale. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references order viagra jelly visa erectile dysfunction treatment houston, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini E (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy). Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Box 108 continues on next page... Blog with author afliation Title for Blogs (required) General Rules for Title • Reproduce the title of a blog as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a space Specific Rules for Title • Determining the title • Titles not in English • Titles in more than one language • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character Box 110. Use the following sources in the order given: • Look for the most prominent (usually the largest) wording on the opening screen • Use the "About" or similar link • Look at the title bar of the Web browser (generally in the top lef corner) • Look for the title in the source code of the blog if it is displayed by the Web browser Box 110 continues on next page... Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Blog title with upper/lowercase letters, special characters 1940 Citing Medicine 12. Blog in a language other than English Content Type for Blogs (optional) General Rules for Content Type • Use a content type to alert the user that the reference is to a blog, not to a standard book or Web site • Begin type information with a lef square bracket • Enter the words "blog on" • End the content type with space Specific Rules for Content Type • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Titles not in English Box 115. Place the content type and type of medium in square brackets afer the title and end title information with a period. Blog published with content type given Editor and other Secondary Authors for Blogs (optional) General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors • A secondary author modifes the work of the author. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. For example, Chicago as the place of publication of a blog issued by the American Medical Association. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Blog with unknown place of publication Publisher for Blogs (required) General Rules for Publisher • Use for publisher the individual or organization issuing the blog • Record the name of the publisher as it is found on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation appears • When a division or another subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name frst. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute] Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she • If the name of a division of other part of an organization is included in the publisher information, give the names in hierarchical order from highest to lowest Valencia (Spain): Universidade de Valencia, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentacion Lopez Pinero Box 129 continues on next page... Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press] • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Blog with unknown publisher Date of Publication for Blogs (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Give the beginning date, i. Electronic Mail and Discussion Forums 1953 • Include the month, if desired, afer the year, such as 2004 May • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the frst three letters, such as Jan • For an open blog, give the beginning date of the blog followed by a hyphen and 3 spaces • For a closed blog, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen with a space before and afer • If the beginning date is not provided, see No beginning date is provided below • End date information with a space Box 137. When a blog does not clearly state the date the blog began (and closed): • Look for the beginning date in a link titled "About", "My Profle", etc. A copyright date is identifed by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Tis convention alerts a user that the information is older than the date of publication implies. Blog with date obtained from earliest material in it Date of Citation for Blogs (required) General Rules for Date of Citation • Always include the date the blog was seen on the Internet • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5 • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the frst three letters, such as Jan • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation afer it and follow both dates with a right square bracket • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket Examples for Date of Citation 1. Contribution to a blog on the Internet by someone other than the blog owner Language for Blogs (required) General Rules for Language • Give the language of publication if not English • Capitalize the language name • Follow the language name with a period Specific Rules for Language • Blogs appearing in more than one language Box 142. Blog in a language other than English 1960 Citing Medicine Notes for Blogs (optional) General Rules for Notes • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given afer the citation itself • Complete sentences are not required • Be brief Specific Rules for Notes • Types of material to include in notes Box 143. Blog with supplemental note included Electronic Mail and Discussion Forums 1961 Examples of Citations to Blogs 1. Blog with editors where there is no author Ostrovsky M, Genes N, Odell T, Ostrovsky G, editors. Diabetes Mine: a gold mine of straight talk and encouragement for people living with diabetes [blog on the Internet]. Diabetes Mine: a gold mine of straight talk and encouragement for people living with diabetes [blog on the Internet]. Blog with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity Ostrovsky M, Genes N, Odell T, Ostrovsky G, editors. Department of Health and Human Electronic Mail and Discussion Forums 1967 Services. Contribution to a blog on the Internet by someone other than the blog owner Mantone J. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Wikis Te general format for a reference to a wiki on the Internet, including punctuation: 1968 Citing Medicine Examples of Citations to Wikis A wiki is a multi-authored or collaborative Web site that permits users to create additional content for the site and to edit existing content. Users may also add comments to content, ask questions, and reply to questions posed by others. If the word wiki is not included, using the content type "wiki" is strongly recommended. To cite a contribution to a wiki, combine the instructions in this chapter with those in Chapter 24C Contributions to Databases on the Internet if the contribution has an author named or with Chapter 24B Parts of Databases on the Internet if the contribution has no author named. Since anyone can post text to most wikis, the validity of the content may be questionable. Even for moderated sites, the content is generally only reviewed afer posting and the content may remain online for some time before review. Note also that many wikis post articles or other documents that were initially published elsewhere. Messages or other content posted to discussion lists including wikis are a form of personal communication and not ofen accepted by editors or others for inclusion in a reference list. Most authorities recommend placing references to such communications within the running text, not as formal end references. Te nature and source of the cited information should be identifed by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate that the citation is not represented in the reference list. Tese statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the posting. It is highly recommended that any message/content considered for future citation be saved to disk or in print because all wikis may not save or archive message content for retrieval or may withdraw some content. Citation Rules with Examples for Wikis Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference.

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Essential inorganic Degradation and synthesis ofarginine and ornithine generic viagra jelly 100mg without prescription erectile dysfunction drugs recreational use, their elements of the food (metabolism order viagra jelly with visa biking causes erectile dysfunction, function, deficiency). Degradation of amino acids in the Requirements Requirements for signing the semester: attendance and participation in all laboratory practices and seminars as well as in the obligatory lectures (see the list of the obligatory lectures). Only one absence is accepted from the obligatory lectures, in case of more absences the semester won’t be accepted. New scientific information connected to the lectures will also be presented; those materials will also be asked on the exams. Every laboratory practice must be performed, if someone is absent due to any serious reason proved by medical papers, the missing experiment have to be performed within the three weeks practice period joining to another group (after previous discussion with both practice teachers). In case of more than one remedial practice, students cannot get any points for that practice unit. The list of the chemical structures can be found in the biochemistry practical guide. In the first semester, grade will be offered on the basis of the collected points for all those students, who collected at least 60 points (and reached at least 60% of the practical points! Those, who did not collect 60 points, have to take a written exam in the exam period. At the written end-semester exam 50 points can be collected, it consists of single- and multiple choice test questions from the lecture material (45 points) and from the practice (5 points). Those students who collect at least 220 points during the three semesters from the three main courses (Molecular Biology, Biochemistry I. Year, Semester: 2nd year/1 semesterst Number of teaching hours: Practical: 30 1st week: Practical: Revision. The maximum percentage of allowable absences is 10 % which is a total of 2 out of the 15 weekly classes. Maximally, two language classes may be made up with another group and students have to ask for written permission (via e-mail) 24 hours in advance from the teacher whose class they would like to attend for a makeup because of the limited seats available. If the number of absences is more than two, the final signature is refused and the student must repeat the course. If students’ behaviour or conduct does not meet the requirements of active participation, the teacher may evaluate their participation with a "minus" (-). If a student has 5 minuses, the signature may be refused due to the lack of active participation in classes. Testing, evaluation In each Hungarian language course, students must sit for 2 written language tests and a short minimal oral exam. A further minimum requirement is the knowledge of 200 words per semester announced on the first week. There is a (written or oral) word quiz in the first 5-10 minutes of the class, every week. If a student has 5 or more failed or missed word quizzes he/she has to take a vocabulary exam that includes all 200 words along with the oral exam. The oral exam consists of a role-play randomly chosen from a list of situations announced in the beginning of the course. The result of the oral exam is added to the average of the mid-term and end-term tests. Based on the final score the grades are given according to the following table: Final score Grade 0 - 59 fail (1) 60-69 pass (2) 70-79 satisfactory (3) 80-89 good (4) 90-100 excellent (5) If the final score is below 60, the student once can take an oral remedial exam covering the whole semester’s material. Consultation classes: In each language course once a week students may attend a consultation class with one of the teachers of that subject in which they can ask their questions and ask for further explanations of the material covered in that week. Website: Audio files to the course book, oral exam topics and vocabulary minimum lists are available from the website of the Department of Foreign Languages: ilekt. Year, Semester: 2nd year/1 semesterst Number of teaching hours: Lecture: 60 Seminar: 30 Practical: 45 1st week: 4th week: Lecture: Introductory remarks. Preparation for laboratory Lecture: Electrical properties of the heart Mechanisms of practices. Electrical properties of the cell contraction coupling in cardiac muscle Cardiac Ca2+ membrane -entry mechanisms Contractile properties of the heart 2nd week: 5th week: Lecture: Mechanisms underlying the action potential. Regulation of striated muscle cardiac cycle Principles of hemodynamics Features of contraction. Smooth muscle physiology arterial circulation 3rd week: 6th week: Lecture: Physiology of the body fluids, homeostasisRed Lecture: Microcirculation Lymphatic circulation, venous blood cells, blood types. Exocrine functions of pancreas, liver and intestines circulation Cerebral and coronary circulation 11th week: 8th week: Lecture: The liver Absorption of nutrients. Energy balance Regulation of body Circulatory shock Regulation of cell function "My heart" temperature Energetics of muscle contraction 9th week: 12th week: Lecture: Mechanics of respiration. Compliance, work of Lecture: Energetics of muscle contraction Excercise breathing. Signature of Lecture Book Attendance of lectures, laboratory practices and seminars is compulsory. The signature of the Lecture Book may be refused for the semester in case of more than four absences from the seminars and/or more than two absences from the laboratory practices. In cases of more than four lecture absences these special advantages are withdrawn (see below). All missed practices must be must be made up, however this does not reduce the number of absences! Completion of all topic sheets in the Exercise Book, each verified by the signature of the teacher, is also a precondition of the signature of the Lecture Book. For continuous updates on all education-related maters, please check the departmental web-site (http://phys. Evaluation during the semester The knowledge of students will be tested 2 times during the 2nd semester in the form of a written test (multiple choice questions). Participation on mid-semester written tests is compulsory and the results of all mid- semester tests will be presented to the examiner during the final exam. Laboratory practical knowledge of the students will be tested at the end of the semester as part of the Closing Lab, evaluation with two level marks (Accepted or Not Accepted). As a precondition of attending the Closing Lab, the fully completed Exercise Book (with all the verified topics) must be presented during the Closing Lab. Students are expected to perform the given experiment on their own and must be familiar with theoretical background also. If the final evaluation of the Closing lab is "not accepted", then the student will be given laboratory practical questions in the written part of the final exam and the student will lose the advantages which are detailed below. The result of the exam is failed if the student fails either on the written part or on the oral part. If the final evaluation of the Closing lab is "not accepted";, then the student will be given laboratory practical questions in the written part of the final exam. The laboratory practical questions cover the material of both semesters and the student will lose the advantages what are detailed below. Depending on the average result of the five self-controls of 2014/2015 academic year, the following special advantages are granted: The average score of the five mid term tests (three in the first term and two in the second semester) is calculated.

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A six-month purchase cheap viagra jelly erectile dysfunction drugs without side effects, randomized cheap viagra jelly 100mg otc erectile dysfunction drugs non prescription, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the use of carnitine in patients prescribed high doses of thyroid hormone. Two groups started with the placebo for two months, then were prescribed 2 or 4 g carnitine per day, then were returned to the placebo for the last two months. The last two groups were started with either 2 or 4 g carnitine per day for the first four months and then were given placebo for the last two months. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism, bone mineralization markers, and liver indicators were recorded. In the second and third groups, the symptoms that had worsened while the subjects were on thyroxine plus the placebo returned to baseline once carnitine had replaced the placebo. In the fourth and fifth groups, symptoms remained stable or improved as long as carnitine was given with thyroxine, implying that the carnitine effect prevailed over the T4 effect. For those given supplemental carnitine, liver profiles improved, although cholesterol levels were virtually unaffected. Because carnitine has extremely low toxicity, the authors of this study recommend considering carnitine for Graves’ disease–induced thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy, during lactation, or in other conditions in which antithyroid drugs may be unwanted, such as liver disease and blood disorders. Botanical Medicines There is a long list of plants used traditionally in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Unfortunately, these plants have not been adequately evaluated in clinical studies. Rather than discuss these plants here, we would encourage anyone interested to consult a naturopathic physician to allow for proper monitoring. In severe cases, there is no guarantee that natural treatments will alleviate the symptoms adequately. In mild cases, natural therapeutics can manage symptoms well, but patients must be monitored carefully. Diet Rule out gluten sensitivity and then follow the guidelines in the chapter “A Health- Promoting Diet. In mild cases, consumption of large amounts of raw vegetables from the brassica (cabbage) family may be adequate to control symptoms when combined with restricted iodine consumption. Nutritional Supplements • Foundation supplement program as described in the chapter “Supplementary Measures” • Carnitine: 2 to 4 g per day Hypoglycemia • Blood glucose level at or below 40 to 50 mg/dl • A normal response curve during the first two to three hours of a glucose tolerance test, followed by a decrease of 20 mg or more below the fasting glucose level during the final hours of the test, with symptoms developing during the decrease Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Normally, the body maintains blood sugar levels within a narrow range through the coordinated effort of several glands. If these control mechanisms are disrupted, hypoglycemia or diabetes (high blood sugar) may result. Americans tend to overstress these control mechanisms because of poor diet and lifestyle habits. Hypoglycemia is divided into two main categories: reactive hypoglycemia and fasting hypoglycemia. Reactive hypoglycemia, the more common, is characterized by the development of symptoms of hypoglycemia three to five hours after a meal. Reactive hypoglycemia may also result from drugs used in the treatment of diabetes (see the chapter “Diabetes”). Some experts have recommended that instead of using the term reactive hypoglycemia, we should call the syndrome increased glycemic volatility or idiopathic postprandial syndrome because absolute glucose levels are not reliable indicators of symptoms. Many times people with glucose levels below 50 mg/dl have no symptoms, while people with symptoms of hypoglycemia can have normal or even elevated glucose levels. Symptoms appear to correlate better with rapid drops in blood glucose than with drops below 50 mg/dl (as discussed below). Pregnant diabetic women using insulin or oral diabetes medications often experience hypoglycemia but usually do not have symptoms. Symptoms of hypoglycemia can range from mild to severe, including headache; depression, anxiety, irritability, and other psychological disturbances; blurred vision; excessive sweating; mental confusion; incoherent speech; bizarre behavior; and convulsions. Hypoglycemia can promote many detrimental changes in the body, such as increasing the levels of C-reactive protein, a marker for inflammation that is a known risk factor for heart disease. After the patient fasts for at least 12 hours, a baseline blood glucose measurement is made. Then the patient drinks a liquid containing glucose (the amount is based on body weight). Blood sugar levels are measured at 30 minutes, at 1 hour, and then hourly for up to 6 hours. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Continuous glucose monitoring is an electronic diagnostic system that requires the insertion of a tiny sensing catheter under the skin of the abdomen. The sensor measures blood sugar and sends this information to a small receiver worn on the patient’s belt for up to one week. A graph showing the average blood sugar reading every five minutes (288 blood sugar readings per day) can then be generated and studied in relationship to food intake, appetite, food cravings, hypoglycemic symptoms, medication, and exercise. This has been shown to be a very useful tool in the diagnosis of, and monitoring of blood sugar control in, diabetes. Lyon has found that symptoms of hypoglycemia occur when blood sugar drops rapidly, even when blood sugar was above the normal range. Lyon, we believe that increased glycemic volatility is at the heart of most weight problems. The data indicate that rapidly fluctuating blood sugar levels are generally related to some degree of insulin resistance and are made worse by excessive consumption of foods with a high glycemic impact. In general, when symptoms appear three to four hours after eating and disappear after food is again eaten, hypoglycemia should be considered. Hypoglycemia Questionnaire No Mild Moderate Severe Crave sweets 0 1 2 3 Irritable if a meal is missed 0 1 2 3 Feel tired or weak if a meal is missed 0 1 2 3 Dizziness when standing suddenly 0 1 2 3 Frequent headaches 0 1 2 3 Poor memory (forgetfulness) or concentration 0 1 2 3 Feel tired an hour or so after eating 0 1 2 3 Heart palpitations 0 1 2 3 Feel shaky at times 0 1 2 3 Afternoon fatigue 0 1 2 3 Vision blurs on occasion 0 1 2 3 Depression or mood swings 0 1 2 3 Overweight 0 1 2 3 Frequently anxious or nervous 0 1 2 3 Total: ______ Scoring: 5 or less: hypoglycemia is not likely to be a factor 6 to 15: hypoglycemia is likely to be a factor 16 or more: hypoglycemia is extremely likely to be a factor General Considerations Although all of the symptoms mentioned in the questionnaire above may be due to hypoglycemia, there are obviously other causes in many cases. However, in the 1970s public interest in hypoglycemia and sugar intake was fueled by a number of books including Sugar Blues by William Duffy, Hope for Hypoglycemia by Broda Barnes, and Sweet and Dangerous by John Yudkin. The popularity of these books and the diagnosis of hypoglycemia were met by much skepticism from the medical community. Editorials in the Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine during the 1970s denounced this public interest in hypoglycemia and tried to invalidate the concept of hypoglycemia. For example, the term metabolic syndrome is used to describe a set of cardiovascular risk factors including glucose or insulin disturbances, high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity, all of which are tied to elevated insulin levels and insulin resistance. There is little doubt about what contributes to these problems: the human body was not designed to handle the amount of refined carbohydrates (and salt, saturated fats, and other harmful food compounds) that feature prominently in the diets of many people in the United States and other Western countries. A substantial amount of information indicates that hypoglycemia (increased glycemic volatility) is caused by an excessive intake of refined carbohydrates, especially added sugar. This sugar addiction plays a major role in the high prevalence of chronic disease in the United States. Consequences of Hypoglycemia The Brain The brain depends on glucose as an energy source.

Prior to deficiency are unlikely to occur purchase viagra jelly in india erectile dysfunction doctors naples fl, but in chickens these release into a marine environment cheap viagra jelly online master card erectile dysfunction pills names, these birds may include decreased egg production, egg shell thin- should receive gradually increasing levels of salt to ning, muscle and cardiac weakness, tetanic convul- ensure that their glands are functional. Sodium and Chloride Water In poultry, salt deficiency causes weight loss, de- Water consumption in birds varies dramatically creased egg production, small eggs and increased among species and among individuals of the same cannibalism. Budgerigars and Zebra Finches (species that gested that salt deficiency may play a role in some evolved in desert regions) have been reported to sur- cases of self-mutilation. Sodium deficiency alone may vive several months without drinking, apparently cause a decrease in cardiac output, hemoconcentra- relying on water derived from metabolic sources. On7 tion, reduced utilization of protein and carbohy- the other hand, healthy companion birds may con- drates, soft bones, corneal keratinization, gonadal sume significant amounts of water daily and become inactivity and adrenal hypertrophy. Tibial dyschondroplasia in meat ing water can cause these birds to stop consuming poultry has been associated with excess dietary chlo- water, resulting in a rapid dehydration and death. This problem is seen occasionally in young rat- ites, although the cause has not been clearly defined. Proc Assoc Avian Vet, diets and the technician’s role in tion and digestion, special digestive Zoo & Avian Med, Hawaii, 1987, pp 1990, pp 150-152. Proc Assoc Avian Vet, 1991, Proc Assoc Avian Vet, 1986, pp 307- Baillière Tindall, 1990, pp 295-319. Philadelphia, syndrome in African greys: An up- erigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed 4th ed. If one group of birds is exposed to another with a latent infection, then a severe disease outbreak can occur. While the carrier birds may be clinically inconspicuous, the virus may propagate at a low level 32 and shed through the feces, urine, respiratory secre- tions or exfoliated epithelial cells from the feathers or skin. In some cases, latently infected birds may succumb to disease, with the virus replicating very rapidly, and both groups of birds may become sick. Artificial incubation and shipping of eggs has been suggested as a method to protect a given population from introduction of an exogenous virus. Infected neonates can cause severe epornitics with high mortality in a nursery situation. Non- specific supportive care, antimicrobials to prevent secondary bacterial and fungal infections and good nutritional support, including the supplementation Helga Gerlach of vitamin C, remain the only available therapeutic regimens for most viral infections. Substantial viral disease outbreaks may be prevented by having a working knowledge of the transmission routes and pathogenesis of a par- ticular virus, by using specific diagnostic tests to detect clinical or subclinical infections, by practicing sound hygiene and by maintaining closed aviaries. Virus adaptation on specific host cells may be diffi- cult to overcome with the routine avian culture sys- tems, and great patience might be necessary when trying adaptation passages (at least ten or more). Continued international cooperation will be manda- tory for the expansion of knowledge in the field of avian virology. Where reactive partners meet, they form a precipitate that is visible as one or several pale lines. It is, however, relatively insensi- Diagnostic Principles tive when compared to other techniques. By adding antibodies directed against the agglutinating portion of the virus, tion can be made only through specific laboratory hemagglutinin activity is neutralized so that hemagglutination can- diagnostic methods. If viral-specific neutralizing diagnostic tools are necessary to confirm a virus as a antibodies are present in the test serum, and the quantitative ratio cause of morbidity or mortality in an avian host is correct, then virus in a sample will be neutralized. There are several procedures that can that an Ag-Ab reaction has occurred must then be demonstrated by showing that the neutralized virus is incapable of inducing be used to confirm the presence of a viral infection: 1) disease in a test system (usually cell culture). If an Ag-Ab reaction occurs with test material then complement is fixed (used up), and a second reaction with an Ag-Ab indicator 5) Indirect demonstration of a viral infection by de- system can no longer take place. Further- sometimes be demonstrated by a rise in antibody more, commercially available guinea pig complement is inappro- priate for use with many bird species. A test material is than other techniques and allow the detection of added (can be serum for detecting Ab or tissue samples for small concentrations of virus as well as the ability to detecting Ag). The occurrence of an Ag-Ab reaction is demon- strated by adding a third Ag or Ab that is conjugated with an detect the presence of viral nucleic acid before sub- enzyme. A substrate that is converted by the bound enzyme is stantial histologic changes may have occurred. However, prepa- Virus Cultures ration of the appropriate enzyme conjugate with a correspondingly high degree of specificity is demanding. Nonspecific reactions are Choosing an optimum culture system for avian vi- frequently observed. There are over 8,700 avian species, cific antigens; however, with the use of monoclonal antibodies, serotypes, biovars or mutants can be demonstrated. If an Ag-Ab tures from fibroblasts, kidney or liver cells collected reaction occurs with test material then fluorescence is present from embryos of the test species normally provide the after washing off the superplus reagents. Although this method is very sensitive, it presents inherent dangers to personnel dealing from chickens, ducks and geese are most often used with radioactive materials as well as creating disposal problems as an alternative choice because of their wide avail- for radioactive waste. Identification of group-specific antigens, ability; however, these sources of cells have inherent serovars or individual antigenic sites is possible with the correct antibodies. Not every newly prepared cell culture is identical to its predecessor, which may affect virus propagation. In contrast cells, prolonging the recovery of a virus from weeks to tissue culture, they offer a complete biologic sys- to months. Many viral pathogens have never been tem with cells of endo-, meso- and ectodermal origin. The flocks from which these eggs are obtained should be free of viruses and virus antibodies in order to allow a particular virus to grow. Virus Identification Direct identification of a virus by electron microscopy is possible only with a relatively high concentration of the virus (generally >106 particles/ml). As a rapid but insensitive survey, fresh tissue samples fixed on grids (stained with osmium or another appropriate stain) can be examined by electron microscopy for the presence of viruses. Viral-specific nucleic acid probes allow the detection of very small concentrations of a virus in infected tissues or contaminated samples (crop washing, feces, respiratory excretions). Ana- lytic methods such as electrophoresis without blot systems (Ab-dependent with blots), chromatography and nucleic acid probes are the most sensitive meth- ods of demonstrating virus. The recent advances in genetic engineering will certainly have profound ef- fects on virus detection in the future. The initial precipitating antibody changes induced by the virus, such as histologically titer was 0. The presence of a precipitation line at 1/80 (arrow) indicates that the bird seroconverted following vaccination and discernible inclusion bodies. Depending on the test objec- tive, either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies are normally used for iden- tifying specific antigen structures and to differentiate between serotypes, subtypes, variants and mutants. Indirect virus identification techniques require the Samples for culture should be transported quickly demonstration of specific antibodies in a patient’s and well cooled in a transport medium containing serum.